Describe the relationship between vapor pressure and boiling point

The vapor pressure of a liquid is the equilibrium pressure of vapor above the liquid at a given temperature. Liquids with higher vapor pressures must have less strong forces holding the molecules together in the liquid phase, thus more of the molecules are able to escape the liquid and be in the vapor phase. For example, the amount of heat necessary to change one gram of water to steam at its boiling point at one atmosphere of pressure, i.e., the heat of vaporization of water, is approximately 540 calories. Other substances require other amounts. Introduction; The Boiling Point and Latent Heat of Vaporization; Evaporation and Vapor Pressure

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Distillation is a method of purifying liquids through differences in boiling points. For example, if the boiling point of liquid A is 65 ºC and the boiling point of liquid B is 111 ºC, than heating a mixture of A and B at 70 ºC (above the boiling point of A but below that of B) should boil off most of liquid A, allowing you to separate the two liquids.

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Pressure-swing distillation takes advantage of the fact that boiling point (T,X) diagrams are two-dimensional slices of a (T,X,P) diagram in which the pressure is the third variable. This means that the azeotropic composition depends on the pressure, so distillation at some pressure other than 1 atm may allow one to "jump" the azeotrope. The normal boiling point, therefore, is the boiling point at 1 atm of pressure. When a substance boils, the bubbles are filled with the gaseous form of that substance — no chemical reaction has taken place during the phase change. Glossary boiling point temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of the gas above it


The pressure of the gas over the surface of a liquid is called the vapor pressure. Understandably, liquids with low boiling points tend to have high vapor pressures because the particles are weakly attracted to each other. As can be seen, at 100 o C, the vapor pressure of water is exactly 101.3 kPa and thus only water molecules will be in the space over the liquid. At this temperature, known as boiling point, the liquid starts to boil and a further administration of heat will not increase the temperature until all water is evaporated.

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